January 30, 2012
Leave a Comment
January 19, 2012
Leave a Comment
Close your eyes and picture a Druid. What do you see? Chances are a white bearded man in a white robe springs to mind, perhaps with a golden sickle and a bough of mistletoe, someone similar to Gandalf from Lord of the Rings, right? That’s what we’ve been conditioned to think of by both “historical” accounts from Roman and Greek contemporaries and Hollywood.
In reality, the Druids were a far more diverse group, young and old, including men (who were called Druids) and women (who were called priestesses). They made up the most powerful class of Celtic society. And unlike in some modern religions, they were free to marry, with Druids often marrying priestesses or either one marrying warrior nobles. There were some who voluntarily chose chastity, such as the virgin priestesses who guarded the sacred fire of the Goddess Brigid in Ireland before the coming of Christianity, but they were an exception, rather than the rule.
There were three groups of Druids:
- Priests – Led ritual, taught the young, and persevered the religious tradition of the tribe.
- Bards – Composed music and poetry that was believed to have a magical effect. A bard’s song was thought to be able to induce sleep, control mood and cause illness or death. The satire of a bard (also known as the Poet’s Curse) permanently ruined a leader’s reputation and so was often used by warring tribes against one another.
- Prophets – Divined the future through the reading of patterns in animal entrails, tracks or flight patterns or by casting of lots of sacred wood (similar to reading runes). Some also received messages from the gods and goddesses.
The head Druid was called the Archdruid and he was elected by his peers.
Power and Function
The Druids held great power. In Ireland, the Druids chose the King through a shamanistic ritual call The Bull Dream. In the Irish court, no one, including the King, could speak before the court Druid had spoken. The word of a Druid was final, even if a more powerful noble disagreed. If you went against a Druid ruling, he or she could strip you of your rights, barring you from religious ceremony and all tribal matters, rendering you an outlaw without tribe or purpose.
Although exempt from taxes and military service, it was not uncommon for a Druid to accompany an army into battle. A Druid could stop a fight with a single word, even if the local noble or warrior leading the fight disagreed. There was also a custom that solider would always yield his or her weapon to a Druid if they asked for it, even in the middle of a battle.
Becoming a Druid
Almost all Druids were recruited from the nobility. It is believed that training took nearly 20 years for a priest or prophet and 7 – 12 years for a bard (and this in an age when the life span was pretty short – probably no longer than 35-40). It is said that at one time there were 13 Druid colleges (yes, that’s what they called them) or centers of learning in Britain alone. All religious learning was done orally and so the Druids became known for their astounding feats of memorization (which are even more amazing viewed through our modern, writing-dependant, ADD mindset). But that also meant much of their tradition was lost over time (I’ll go in-depth on their religious beliefs in a future post). It is known that the Druids had a secret written language known only to them called Ogham. Its letter were named for the sacred Celtic trees, but its purpose remains a mystery (theories name it everything from a method of accounting to a secret code for communicating with non-Latin speakers).
But not all who studied with them stayed for the long haul. Many children of nobility were there only to learn from the gifted mathematicians, astrologers and healers among them. It is also probable that they were great linguists, considering there were dozens of tribes at any given time in Britain alone, each with their own language (or at least dialect) and the Druids were known to communicate internationally with one another in Latin and Greek.
The Druids underwent severe persecution by the Romans in Britain, because the Romans both feared and were jealous of their judicial power, ability to incite rebellion and religious sway. They routinely attacked Druid centers, cutting down their sacred oak groves and slaughtering the Druids. The most famous attack was on the Isle of Anglesey (then called the Isle of Mona) in 6o AD, which was so brutal that the event became known as the Rape of Mona. Still, the religion perservered until the late sixth century, when Christianity finally took over.
The Stonehenge Tour Company – www.StonehengeTours.com
January 19, 2012
Leave a Comment
Stonehenge tours from London are widespread. It is not surprising that a multitude of people wish to explore the history of this enigmatic structure. Scholars still appear to be no closer to uncovering the purpose of Stonehenge, and reams of visitors have attempted to fathom its mystery.
What sets Golden Tours’ Stonehenge tours apart from our competitors is the quality and the range we have available for the visitor, including Stonehenge-Bath-Windsor, Stonehenge-Bath-Salisbury, and Stonehenge-Oxford tours. Alternatively, if you wish to just marvel at the grandeur of Stonehenge and are limited on time, then our Simply Stonehenge tour is the ideal option for you.
Stonehenge has given rise to an immense amount of debate from its very beginnings. Theories proliferate as to why it was built; from the belief that it was used as a religious temple to claims it may even be a Bronze Age burial ground. A Golden Tours’ Stonehenge tour is remarkable. Take advantage of the exclusive opportunity to enter into the stone circle, and even touch the stone that has been the product of such contention.
Take a Stonehenge-Bath-Windsor day tour from London for a genuinely exceptional experience. Bath is a city of ‘firsts’, incredibly rich in history. Bath Abbey held the first coronation of a British king in 973 AD and Bath was the first city in England to be granted status as a World Heritage Site. Uncover why more than a million visitors a year come to marvel at the best preserved Roman baths from the ancient world.
If you hold any interest whatsoever in grandiose architecture or royal history, you are bound to be impressed by Windsor Castle. Be astounded by the sheer majesty of the State Apartments, and visit St George’s Chapel. Formidable St George’s Chapel holds a very distinctive atmosphere, as it is the resting place for many past famed monarchs. Queen Mary’s Dolls’ House was made with awe-inspiring attention to detail and delicacy and is well worth examining.
Our Stonehenge-Bath-Salisbury guided coach tour allows you to sample the glory of Salisbury. The remarkable spire of imperious Salisbury Cathedral stands at an immense 123m (404ft). Indeed, it is the tallest spire in the whole of the UK. Also a historically significant cathedral, the Chapter House is home to one of the best preserved copies of the incredibly momentous document, the Magna Carta, which you will be lucky enough to view first-hand on this Golden Tours’ Stonehenge tour.
For the ultimate historical and academic experience, take a Golden Tours’ Stonehenge-Oxford tour. Following a visit to awe-inspiring Stonehenge, traverse the university town of Oxford, a picturesque, quaint city that holds an outstanding reputation. Celebrated for over 900 years as a pinnacle of academic distinction, trail in the footsteps of its notable students; from Oscar Wilde to T.S. Eliot to Stephen Hawking. Take in the world renowned Bodleian Library and the captivating courtyards of different colleges.
Golden Tours’ Stonehenge tours allow you to uncover the atmospheric edifice of Stonehenge, and become immersed in its fascinating history. Exclusive to Golden Tours, enter into the stone circle and touch the stone, knowing you are traveling back centuries. For the ultimate experience, however, try a Stonehenge-Bath-Windsor, Stonehenge-Bath-Salisbury, or Stonehenge-Oxford tour. All of these cities have their own distinctive, singular charms, and are sure to leave you enraptured. Take a Golden Tours guided coach tour from London for a truly memorable experience.
For these and other guided tours of Stonehenge visit: